Title : Problems of the pollution in transboundary rivers basin of the aral sea and the ways of their solution
The article describes the hydrochemical condition of the transboundary rives in Central Asia. Cause of water pollution is increasing human pressure on surface water re-sources from population growth, increased economic activity and increasing intake of users, low level operation of irrigation systems, the exiting discharge of untreated industrial of sewages and drainage water to irrigation areas. The recommendations for reducing pollution of transboundary rivers streams Aral.
1. In the last years hydrochemical state of many rivers and reservoirs of Aral Sea has deteriorated significantly. This applies particularly to the basins of transboundary rivers Syrdarya , Amudarya, Zarafshan. If the upper reaches of these rivers salinity of river water does not exceed 0.4 -0.5 g/l, in the lower reaches of the rivers in increases up to 1.2 – 1.4 g/l. In this case, the water content increased sulphate and chloride ions, and the ions of magnesium and sodium. As part of water downstream is also observed excess of the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of other pollutants, phenol, petroleum copper, chromium and other;
2. The cause of the existing water pollution of transboundary rivers is increasing human pres-sure on surface water resources from population growth increased economic activity and in-creasing intake of users, low level operation of irrigation systems, the existing discharge of un-treated industrial sewage and drainage water irrigation areas.
3. To minimize cross-border pollution of surface water must have the following:
-expansion of hydrochemical monitoring along the river, which includes quantitative and qualitative assessment of the degree of contamination and salinity in agreement with the international norms and standards on water quality.
It should be - subject to monitoring water samples for chemical analysis in cross-sections are located at the boundaries of different states on the output and the input to the different countries, located a major river basin. For example, in the Syrdarya river basin to hold water sampling at the exit of Kyrgyzstan, at the entrance of the river in Uzbekistan, at its exit from Uzbekistan, at the entrance to the Republic of Kazakhstan- in the mouth.
-Reduction of discharge of drainage water into the river system through better use in place of formation, improve the technical condition of existing drainage systems (GMS) lead mineralized drainage water into desert denkessions, local application of advanced methods of highly mineralized water desalination individual collectors.
-The creation of closed water systems in industrial plants, which not only exclude discharge of sewage , but also to minimize their consumption will drive the outside.
4. Remember that the management of water quality in the transboundary rivers, is part of the overall management, of water resources. It is therefore necessary to improve the practical implementation of the existing mechanism, international agreement on water management. In particular, you need to get signed and the implementation of paragraphs Helsinki Convention (1992) on international rivers and lakes.
5. In the future it is necessary for state government level to implement the ideas and meth-ods to integrated water resources management (IWRM), which is a continuous current process ensuring sustainable development in each country, as well as the monitoring and allocation of water resources in the context of the existing social, economic and environmental problems.