The use of biomolecules, particularly enzymes or entire cells, as catalysts for the creation of novel materials is known as biocatalysis. Enzymes and microorganisms have been exploited in the creation of industrially important products for hundreds of years, such as the fermentation of alcohol and the enzymatic breakdown of milk proteins in cheese. Since the need for intense use of natural resources with reduced pollution has become a global trend, biocatalysis-based technologies are becoming a blooming sector of research and industrial applications. Biocatalysis is critical for solving global concerns such as climate change, fossil fuel substitution, and feeding a growing population, primarily because bioprocessing in the food, feed, and nonfood industries increases resource efficiency by extracting more value from raw biomaterials.
Biotransformation is the process by which lipophilic (fat-soluble), xenobiotic (foreign), and endobiotic (endogenous) substances are transformed to more hydrophilic compounds in the body through enzyme processes (water-soluble).