A biorefinery is a facility that uses biomass conversion methods and technologies to create fuels, electricity, and chemicals, similar to a petroleum refinery. Biorefineries are industrial units that convert biomass into energy, chemicals, and materials in a sustainable manner. The call for sustainable development to assure energy security, combat climate change, and meet demand for chemicals and minerals is the main driving force for the establishment of biorefineries. The future biorefinery will incorporate a number of low-environmental-impact (bio)chemical processes and technologies. The catalytic conversion of bio-based feedstocks to fuel and chemicals has seen an explosion of research over the last decade.