Heterogeneous catalysis is critical for the advancement of renewable energy technology, which is currently one of the most pressing scientific and technological concerns. Designing efficient and economically feasible catalysts, such as active and selective catalysts and earth-abundant-element-made catalysts, is crucial to the solution. The need for renewable technologies opens up a plethora of catalytic prospects. Progress clearly necessitates a sustained coordinated effort involving many other disciplines in order to produce the devices and infrastructure required. So far, only fermented cellulose has been converted using molecular conversion technology for non-food biomass. Catalysis is clearly required in this field.