Enzymes are catalysts that carry out chemical processes at an incredible rate under the mild conditions of temperature, pH, and pressure found in cells. They are distinguished by their efficiency and specificity. Large nutrient molecules, such as proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates, are broken down into smaller molecules by enzymes.
The sequence of enzyme-catalyzed reactions that lead to the conversion of a substance into a final product is referred to as a metabolic pathway. A metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical events that occur within a cell in biochemistry. Metabolites are the reactants, products, and intermediates of an enzymatic reaction that are altered by a series of chemical reactions catalyzed by enzymes.
Microbial biotechnology is defined as any technical application that employs microbiological systems, microbial organisms, or their derivatives to create or change goods or processes for a specific application.