A separation process is a method for separating two or more separate product mixtures from a mixture or solution of chemical substances. At least one of the separation outcomes is enriched in one or more of the constituents of the source mixture. In some situations, separating the mixture into pure ingredients is possible. The chemical, petroleum refining, and materials processing industries all rely on separation procedures, which utilize physical, chemical, or electrical forces to isolate or concentrate specified parts of a mixture. Separations take advantage of variations in a mixture's constituents' chemical or physical qualities (such as size, shape, mass, density, or chemical affinity). Processes are frequently categorized based on the specific differences they employ to accomplish separation.